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The national vaccination coverage attained in pregnant women in the past 4 years (2011-2014) has been satisfactory; 88% coverage was attained in the year this program was introduced to the schedule. Recently, the Dutch Health Council advised that all pregnant women in the Netherlands be vaccinated against pertussis in a vaccination programme. During the period 2006-2008, a total of 560 household contacts of 164 hospitalized infants were tested by polymerase chain reaction, culture, and serological examination to establish Bordetella pertussis infection.

e. low Apgar-score, neonatal intensive care unit admission, neonatal resuscitation or perinatal death. Nevertheless, many aspects are still unknown and possible blunting of the infant's immune responses by maternal antibodies, is one of the concerns with maternal vaccination. The primary aim was to measure the influence of this booster dose on the titer and duration of the presence of maternal antibodies in the infants and assess possible interference with infant immune responses. Fetal microchimeric cells have some characteristics of cancer 119, including evading the maternal immune system 11 and inducing angiogenesis 40. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the association between maternal vaccination and infant pertussis infection.

The escalation of conflict between fetal and maternal systems over resource allocation has been proposed as an explanation for several pathological conditions of pregnancy including gestational diabetes and preeclampsia 3, 5. Expected infant seropositivity rates reached 80% vs 55% following second versus third trimester immunization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3. Infants had high pertussis antibody concentrations pre-immunization but only PT antibodies increased post-immunization (fold-change, 2. Considering the evolutionary and phylogenetic origins of fetal cells suggests that they may have a similar function to the placenta.

De sinds 2014 waargenomen stijging (3,7 maternale overlijdens in de periode 2012-2016) kan dus in verband worden gebracht met deze wijziging van de definitie, die met name rekening houdt met gevallen van zelfmoord. Paroxysmal cough, post-tussive whooping, and vomiting > or = 21 days was found in 53%, 22%, and 8% of all B pertussis cases and in 22%, 5%, and 0% of all B parapertussis cases, respectively.

Maternal‐fetal conflict not only predicts the evolution of fetal adaptations to enhance resource flow to offspring, but also maternal countermeasures to limit that flow 3. These finding suggest that fetal cells might have important effects on brain function, though the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. Bij het identificeren van deze maternale overlijdens sloot de ad-hocwerkgroep, die alle gefedereerde entiteiten die gegevens produceren verzamelt rond het Belgische statistiekbureau, het risico niet uit op een onderschatting van deze sterfgevallen op basis van enkel het statistiekformulier dat als belangrijkste bron dient. The present framework suggests that selection may have favored fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal brain function to enhance maternal resource transfer and attachment to offspring.

Infants younger than 3 months were also the only age group in which there were fewer cases in 2013 than in 2011 (118 cases in 2011 vs 72 cases in 2013), before the resurgence. In de differentiaaldiagnose bij Prader-Willi-syndroom', Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, vol. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. This predicts that the presence of fetal cells in the breast should be associated with higher levels of milk production or enhanced quality of mother's milk and could be associated with negative health outcomes for the mother in some cases 52. We describe two patients with dysmaturity, neonatal hypotonia and feeding difficulties who initially showed clinical signs of Prader-Willi syndrome.We determined the evolution of the maternal-fetal transport of immunoglobulins during human pregnancy. However, one of these studies found fetal cell DNA in multiple regions of the maternal brain, and in one case, decades after the woman had given birth to a son 75, suggesting that fetal microchimerism in the human maternal brain may be pervasive and long‐lasting. Identification of male cardiomyocytes of extracardiac o

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