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Kare Design Picture Frame Mirror Skull, black, frame glass mirrored, Glass Toughened safety glass, back panel MDF, wall art, room decor, home decor for living room, hallway, bedroom, 100x100cm

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Amenta N, Bern M, Eppstein D. Optimal point placement for mesh smoothing. Journal of Algorithms 1999; 30(2): 302–322. Chulvi V, Cebrian-Tarrasón D, Sancho Á, Vidal R. Automated design of customized implants. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia 2013; 68: 95–103. Falguera Uceda, M.I.; Sánchez-Casanova, S.; Escudero-Duch, C.; Vilaboa, N. A Narrative Review of Cell-Based Approaches for Cranial Bone Regeneration. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 132. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef] [ PubMed] Lo JL, Chen YR, Tseng CS, Lee MY. Computer-aided reconstruction of traumatic fronto-orbital osseous defects: aesthetic considerations. Chang Gung Medical Journal.2004; 27(4): 283–291. pmid:15239195

Dujovny M, Aviles A, Agner C, Fernandez P, Charbel FT. Cranioplasty: cosmetic or therapeutic?. Surg Neurol. 1997; 47(3): 238–41. pmid:9068693 de Vries, L.S.; Gunardi, H.; Barth, P.G.; Bok, L.A.; Verboon-Maciolek, M.A.; Groenendaal, F. The spectrum of cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Neuropediatrics 2004, 35, 113–119. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef] Cuc, N.T.K.; Cao, X.B.; Vu, T.D.; Thang, V.T. Design and Mechanical Evaluation of a Large Cranial Implant and Fixation Parts. Interdiscip. Neurosurg. 2023, 31, 101676. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef]

Rokaya, D.; Singh, A.K.; Sanohkan, S.; Nayar, S. Advanced Polymers for Craniomaxillofacial Reconstruction. In Chapter in Specialty Polymers, 1st ed.; Gupta, R.K., Ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2023; p. 13. ISBN 9781003278269. [ Google Scholar] The serpent is a prominent symbol of temptation and evil. But that’s not its sole representation. The emblem of a snake can signify rebirth or transformation as well. Hatamleh, M.M.; Wu, X.; Alnazzawi, A.; Watson, J.; Watts, D. Surface characteristics and biocompatibility of cranioplasty titanium implants following different surface treatments. Dent. Mater. 2018, 34, 676–683. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef]

Mangubat E, Sani S. Acute global ischemic stroke after cranioplasty: case report and review of the literature. Neurologist. 2015; 19(5): 135–9. pmid:25970836 Skull modify–This section loads the dataset once and handles its preparation. The user can apply transformations in form of rotation, translation, applying a transform matrix and much more. Further, the skull can be cut with a plane, where just one side of this plane will be visible. This option is necessary to get a view on the inner parts of the skull, for example, the inner edges. The output is a modified skull. Skervin, A.; Levy, B. Management of Common Surgical Complications. Surgery 2023, 41, 76–80. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef]

Footnotes

World Health Organization. Injuries and Violence. Available online: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/injuries-and-violence (accessed on 16 February 2023). The lignite mosaic stripes alternate with bands of bright blue turquoise and the eyes are made of two orbs of polished iron pyrite framed by rings made of white conch (Strombus) shell. The nasal cavity is lined with plates of bright red Spondylus (thorny oyster) shell. Gerstl, J.V.E.; Rendon, L.F.; Burke, S.M.; Doucette, J.; Mekary, R.A.; Smith, T.R. Complications and cosmetic outcomes of materials used in cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy—A systematic review, pairwise meta-analysis, and network meta-analysis. Acta Neurochir. 2022, 164, 3075–3090. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef] In any acquisition from XCT systems, various artifacts may appear because of physical problems of the object, such as (i) a high density of the material, (ii) an excessive size of the object for the limits of the scanning envelope of the machine, and (iii) displacement of the object during the acquisition process or due to the inaccurate calibration of the machine (i.e., the parameters of acquisition used). Accordingly, the first step to follow is to review and to calibrate the images obtained to eliminate artifacts. Egger J, Tokuda J, Chauvin L, Freisleben B, Nimsky C, Kapur T, et al. Integration of the OpenIGTLink network protocol for image-guided therapy with the medical platform MeVisLab. Int J Med Robot. 2012; 8(3): 282–90. pmid:22374845

The skull is an integral part of every vertebrate that has a bone structure forming its head. So, we all have a skull underneath our flesh, but it’s only visible after our body decomposes, after death. ii) This analytical process quantifies the topological deviations between two mesh models. In our case, it helps us to quantify if the simplification of the mesh and cleaning of the artifacts have been very aggressive or poorly applied, generating significant deformations in the original topology of the model. This process is explained in Figure 11, using the skull of U. ingressus as an example. In the case of comparing the original skulls with the reconstructed ones, the information is obtained as a heat map, reflecting the topological arrangement of the added bone structures ( Figures 11D,E). Therefore, those structures artificially added will have a positive deviation with warm colors, and those that have been removed or are below the topological profile of the original skull will have cold colors ( Figure 11E). For such a comparison ( Figure 12D), the reconstructed skull is chosen as the topological pattern against the original skull. For example, if the topology of the restored skull is above the surface pattern of the topology of the non-restored skull, the mesh color will be warm. In contrast, if the topology of the restored skull is below the surface pattern of the non-restored skull, the mesh color will be blue. Therefore, the topological information obtained is different from that in the first case ( Figure 12C). This information is used to quantify the level of preservation of the element (skull, jaw, etc.) and its preservational condition. Another important aspect is to quantify the effect of repairing the skull and postprocessing the model mesh. For example, a high smoothing can cause various details to disappear, such as reliefs and roughness of the muscle insertions, loss of bone sutures. and loss of details of the dental topology, among others. Winkler, P.A.; Stummer, W.; Linke, R.; Krishnan, K.G.; Tatsch, K. The influence of cranioplasty on postural blood flow regulation, cerebrovascular reserve capacity, and cerebral glucose metabolism. Neurosurg. Focus 2000, 8, 1–9. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef] The authors would like to thank Daniel Seiler, Laboratory Manager Medical Additive Manufacturing at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, Muttenz, for his invaluable support in providing the 3D printed titanium prototypes. AbbreviationsCrawford, K.; Berrey, B.H.; Pierce, W.A.; Welch, R.D. In vitro strength comparison of hydroxyapatite cement and polymethylmethacrylate in subchondral defects in caprine femora. J. Orthop. Res. 2005, 16, 715–719. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef] XMarker–In this part all marker operations are handled, from setting the markers, storing them and performing modifications, until finally converting them from an (MeVisLab) MLBase type to vtkPoints. Meyer, H.; Khalid, S.I.; Dorafshar, A.H.; Byrne, R.W. The Materials Utilized in Cranial Reconstruction: Past, Current, and Future. Plast. Surg. 2021, 29, 184–196. [ Google Scholar] [ CrossRef] [ PubMed]

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